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Heat Transfer in Biscuit Baking Oven

Heat Transfer in Biscuit Baking Oven


In the production line, biscuit baking usually refers to the process of shaping, dehydrating and coloring raw biscuits in a tunnel oven. The tunnel oven has a long steel conveyor band or conveyor wire-mesh band that carries the raw biscuits through heated baking chambers. The conveyor turns around large cylindrical drums at each end of the oven and is driven by a variable speed drive at the oven which allows operators to adjust the baking time.


Radiation is the most important method of heat transfer for biscuits. It occurs mainly by electromagnetic radiation of infrared wavelengths from direct gas burners, the hot surfaces of the baking chamber and tubes or ducts carrying hot gases from the burner. Radiation penetrates the raw biscuits and bakes the products to achieve the shape, structure and texture required. Radiation is the traditional method of heat transfer for baking biscuits, breads, as well as many other bakery products. This method of heat transfer is the best for establishing the quality shape, texture, structure and color of biscuits.



Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy between neighboring molecules within an object or between objects in contact with each other. Energy is transferred from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature.

The heat is transferred from the oven band directly to the base of the raw biscuits. Solid steel bands and heavy mesh bands have a relatively large heat mass and a large area in contact with biscuit doughs (nearly full contact). Oven with band preheat equipment can quickly transfer heat into the base of the products and achieve rapid development of the structure and texture. It’s ideal for products requiring high bottom heat to form good shape and open texture such as crackers and hello panda biscuits.



Convection used in the biscuit industry employing hot-air jets that blow directly on the top surface of the biscuit dough pieces and the underside of the oven band. This hot air removes moisture from the surface of the biscuit dough pieces and increases the temperature of the surface of the biscuit dough. However, it will produce dry skin on the products and will prevent the expansion and “lift” of the biscuit dough pieces so that the convection baking system is not used in the first part of the oven when baking most biscuits.

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